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2017-04-16

中國老愛裝無辜,暗助朝鮮射飛彈

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文章說,朝鮮飛彈技術與零件來自中國。但文飾為,不見得是中南海授意。



Kim Jong Un's rockets are getting an important boost - from China
金正恩的火箭正在從中國得到重大的推動
When North Korea launched its Kwangmyongsong-4 satellite into space last February, officials heralded the event as a birthday gift for dead leader Kim Jong Il. But the day also brought an unexpected prize for the country's adversaries: priceless intelligence in the form of rocket parts that fell into the Yellow Sea.
當朝鮮去年二月份向朝鮮發射了光明星-4衛星時,官員們將這件事作為死因的領導人金正日的生日禮物。但這一天也為國家的敵人帶來了意想不到的禮物:落入黃海的火箭零件形式的無價智慧。

Entire sections of booster rocket were snagged by South Korea's navy and then scrutinized by international weapons experts for clues about the state of North Korea's missile program. Along with motor parts and wiring, investigators discerned a pattern. Many key components were foreign-made, acquired from businesses based in China.
整個推進火箭都被韓國海軍攔截,隨後由國際武裝專家審視了關於朝鮮導彈計劃狀況的線索。隨著電機部件和接線,調查人員辨別出了一個模式。許多關鍵零件都是外國製造的,從中國的商業管道購入。

The trove "demonstrates the continuing critical importance of high-end, foreign-sourced components" in building the missiles North Korea uses to threaten its neighbors, a U.N. expert team concluded in a report released last month. When U.N. officials contacted the implicated Chinese firms to ask about the parts, the report said, they received only silence.
聯合國專家組在上個月發布的一份報告中得出結論表明,在建造朝鮮威脅鄰國的導彈中關鍵的高科技外國零件發揮作用。報導說,聯合國官員聯絡了有關中國公司詢問有關部分時,他們沒收到回音。

China's complex relationship with North Korea was a key topic during last week's U.S. visit by President Xi Jinping, as Trump administration officials urged Chinese counterparts to apply more pressure on Pyongyang to halt its work on nuclear weapons and long-range delivery systems.  Yet, despite China's public efforts to rein in North Korea's provocative behavior, Chinese companies continue to act as enablers, supplying the isolated communist regime with technology and hardware that allow its missiles to take flight, according to current and former U.S. and U.N. officials and independent weapons experts.
中國與朝鮮的複雜關係是習近平總統訪美期間的一個重要議題,因為川普政府官員呼籲中方對平壤施加更大的壓力,停止對核武器和遠距離運送系統的工作。儘管中國公開努力遏制北朝鮮的挑釁行為,但根據美國和前美國和聯合國官員和獨立的武器專家所言,中國企業繼續作為推動力,為孤立的共產主義政權提供允許導彈飛行的技術和硬體。

The private assistance has included sensitive software and other items specifically banned for export to North Korea under U.N. Security Council sanctions, the officials and experts said.
官員和專家說,私人援助包括在聯合國安理會制裁下特別禁止向朝鮮出口的敏感軟體和其他物品。

China has officially denied that such illegal exports exist, but investigations show restricted products were shipped privately to North Korea as recently as 18 months ago. Still unclear, analysts said, is whether the Chinese government tacitly approved of the exports, or is simply unable or unwilling to police the thousands of Chinese companies that account for more than 80 percent of all foreign goods imported by North Korea each year.
中國已經正式否認這種非法出口存在,但調查顯示,限制產品在18個月前私人運往朝鮮。分析人士說,還不清楚中國政府是否默認批准出口,還是不能或不願意檢查每年向朝鮮進口所有外國貨物百分之八十以上的數千家中國公司。

"There's all kinds of slack in the system," said Joshua Pollack, a former consultant to U.S. government agencies on arms control and a senior research associate with the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. "It could be that the Chinese don't care enough to do much about it.  A second possibility it that they don't have the systems - such as strong export controls - in place. Or that it's just corruption."
美國政府機構之前的顧問Joshua Pollack說,“系統存在各種漏洞,”擴散研究中心的高級研究員James Martin說“可能是中國人不太在意。第二種可能性是他們沒有制訂出強有力的出口管制。或者只是腐敗。”

Whatever the reason, experts say, the flow of products through China has allowed North Korea's missiles engineers to achieve progress that would otherwise be difficult for an impoverished regime that is cut off from the West and lacks a sophisticated microelectronics industry.
專家說,無論什麼原因,通過中國的產品流入使得朝鮮的導彈工程師能夠取得進步,否則這被西方國家孤立,且缺乏複雜的微電子產業的貧困政權來說是困難的。

When confronted privately about such exports, Chinese officials have typically demanded high levels of proof - specific names and dates that can be difficult to derive from water-damaged rocket parts pulled from the ocean, said an Obama administration nonproliferation official involved in sensitive negotiations with China over its relations with North Korea.
歐巴馬政府防擴散官員在與中國進行敏感談判時表示,私下涉及這種出口事件時,中國官員通常要求提供具體證據、名稱和日期,這些名稱和日期可能難以從受海損的火箭零件中獲取。

"They'd say, 'give us details,' but in most cases we could never say it was 'this precise person on this precise day,'" said the official, who insisted on anonymity in describing diplomatic negotiations.  "With them, it was never a team sport.  It was always just the bare minimum of what they had to do in order to avoid having to take serious action."
堅持匿名的官員說起外交談判這樣表示:他們會說「拿出細節來」,但在大多數情況下,我們永遠無法說哪一個人在哪一天。“與他們一起,這不是一場團隊運動,而是為了避免採取嚴重的行動,一直是他們不得不做的最低限度。”

The Unha-3, the rocket that launched North Korea's Kwangmyongsong-4 satellite into orbit on Feb. 7, 2016, was among the most powerful ever built by Kim Jong Un's government.  It is also the most worrisome.  U.S. and South Korean intelligence officials have long believed that the three-stage, 100-foot-tall rocket was designed as a forerunner for a future nuclear-tipped space vehicle that could allow North Korea to threaten cities as far away as Washington.
27日,發射朝鮮光明興4號衛星的“火箭3號”是金正日政府最有力的一個。這也是最令人擔憂的。美國和韓國的情報官員長期以來一直認為,三階段,100英尺高的火箭可被設計來成為未來核能載具的先驅,可能允許朝鮮威脅遠在華盛頓的城市。

Mindful that spy agencies would seek to recover spent parts after the launch, North Korean engineers laced the rocket with explosives so that each stage would self-destruct while hurtling back to Earth.  Still, South Korean navy ships were waiting to scoop up any parts that survived, eventually harvesting enough components to allow a crude reconstruction of the entire rocket.
意識到間諜機構在發射後將尋求回收零件,朝鮮工程師用爆炸物裝載火箭,以便每個階段在掉回地球時都會自我毀滅。不過,韓國的海軍艦艇正在等待撿起任何能夠倖存的部分,最終收穫足夠的部件,以便對整個火箭進行初步的重建。

Investigators determined that the Unha-3's frame was indigenously made. But inside the rocket's shell was an array of electronics, including specialized pressure sensors, transmitters and circuitry.  An extensive probe by U.S. and South Korean officials revealed that many of the components had been manufactured in Western countries and shipped to North Korea by Chinese distributors - a finding that was echoed in the United Nations Panel of Experts report made public on March 9.
調查人員確定,Unha-3的框架是本土製造的。但在火箭的外殼內部是一系列電子產品,包括專門的壓力傳感器,發信器和電路。美國和韓國官員的廣泛調查顯示,許多零件已在西方國家製造,並由中國經銷商運往朝鮮,這一結果在39日在聯合國專家小組的報告中得到回應。

The report, which received scant attention outside the world body, described elaborate systems for disguising technology exports intended for North Korea.  Some schemes involved Chinese front-companies created by North Korean intelligence agencies; others were run through banks created as joint ventures by Pyongyang and foreign partners, including Chinese financial institutions. As sanctions grew tougher, the sanction-busters simply learned new tricks for getting around the rules, the panel's investigators found.
很少受到世界關注的該報告,描述了偽裝用於朝鮮的技術出口的詳細系統。有些計劃涉及朝鮮情報機構創建的中國前線公司;其他人則是通過平壤和外國合作夥伴(包括中國金融機構)合資組建的銀行。隨著制裁越來越嚴厲,專家小組的調查人員發現,他們學會了繞過規則的新技巧。

"The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is flouting sanctions through trade in prohibited goods, with evasion techniques that are increasing in scale, scope and sophistication," the eight-member panel concluded. International resolve for approving new sanctions had "not yet been matched," the report said, "by the requisite political will, prioritization and resource allocation to ensure effective implementation."
八人小組的結論是:“朝鮮民主主義人民共和國藐視違禁品的貿易制裁,規模,範圍和複雜程度越來越多。”報告說,國際上批准新制裁的決心“還沒有跟上”,就是要求政治意願,優先排序和資源配置,確保有效的執行。“

Some of the banned components exported to North Korea can't be found inside a missile frame.  A separate report by U.S. weapons experts reveals how Pyongyang used Chinese middlemen to obtain access to European-made software essential for making parts that go inside advanced rockets.
在導彈結構內找不到禁止出口到朝鮮的零件。美國武器專家的另一份報告顯示了,平壤如何使用中國中間商,獲得進入高級火箭彈部件的歐洲軟體。

The report recounts a 2015 business deal in which a European manufacturer agreed to sell sensitive software and industrial-control systems to a Chinese company based in the northeastern Chinese city of Shenyang, about 150 miles from the North Korean border. The deal that came with an important condition: None of the items were to be resold to North Korea.
該報告回顧了一項2015年的商業交易,歐洲製造商同意向位於距離朝鮮邊界約150英里的中國東北部瀋陽市場的中國公司出售敏感的軟體和工業控制系統。這個交易有一個重要的條件:不得轉售給朝鮮。

The agreement was quickly broken, according to the report by the Institute for Science and International Security, a Washington nonprofit that focuses on nuclear-weapons proliferation. The purchaser, a manufacturing giant in northeastern China known as the Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., integrated the European technology in its own line of industrial milling machines used to make metal parts.  Two of those machines were then sold to North Korea, the report said.  While North Korea's eventual use of the machines is not known, the controllers and software are used elsewhere to manufacture parts for missiles as well as centrifuges used to make enriched uranium.
華盛頓非營利組織科學和國際安全研究所的報告指出,這一協議很快被打破,這個非營利組織專注於核武器擴散。作為瀋陽機床有限公司的中國東北地區的製造業巨頭,採購商將歐洲技術整合到自己的用於製造金屬零件的工業銑床上。報導說,其中兩台機器然後賣給朝鮮。雖然未知朝鮮是否最終使用機器,但在其他地方,這控制器和軟體用於製造導彈零件,以及用於製造濃縮鈾的離心機。

"These goods were supplied to Shenyang Machine Tools under the condition that they would not be retransferred to North Korea or other sanctioned states," said the report, set to be released this week. European officials "decided to investigate the responsible individuals in the Shenyang company but this effort failed," the document said. Shenyang officials would later claim that the transfer of sensitive technology had been inadvertent, the report said.
報告說:“這些貨物是在不被轉讓給朝鮮或其他受制裁國家的情況下提供給瀋陽機床的。”該文件說,歐洲官員“決定調查瀋陽公司的負責人,但這一努力失敗了。報導說,瀋陽官員後來聲稱,敏感技術的轉讓是無意的。

David Albright, author of the report and a former U.N. weapons inspector, declined to identify the European manufacturer or the government that conducted the investigation, citing confidentiality agreements. The Shenyang firm did not respond to emailed requests from The Washington Post seeking comment.
該報告的作者和前聯合國武器檢查員David Albright拒絕透露進行調查的歐洲製造商或政府,並援引保密協議。瀋陽公司沒有回應“華盛頓郵報”徵求意見的電子郵件請求。

Albright, the author of dozens of technical studies on North Korea's weapons programs, noted that China has made a show of prosecuting other businesses that violate sanctions on trading with North Korea. But he said the Shenyang case illustrates that illicit trade continues, often under complex schemes that are difficult even for Chinese authorities to spot.
作為朝鮮武器方案的數十項技術研究的作者奧爾布賴特指出,中國已經對其他違反朝鮮貿易制裁的企業進行了起訴。但他說,瀋陽案表明,非法貿易繼續下去,往往是複雜的計劃,甚至中國當局也難以察覺。

But he argued that the Chinese could do much more.
但他認為中國人可以做得更多。

"It's a question of priorities," said Albright, who has discussed such cases with Chinese officials. "China is an export economy and money is never a dirty word, ever.  There are good people in the system who would like to do more, but as you work your way down through the bureaucracy, the interest goes way down."
“這是一個優先事項的問題,” Albright與中國官員討論過這種情況。“中國是一個出口經濟體,金錢永遠不會是一個骯髒的話語,系統中有好的人想做更多的事情,但是當你通過官僚機構工作的時候,利益就會下降。”

There are signs that Beijing is beginning to tighten the screws. In September, Chinese authorities arrested at least 11 business executives in the border city of Dandong for allegedly selling banned goods to North Korea. Among those arrested was Ma Xiaohong, the 44-year-old founder and chairwoman of Hongxiang Group, a company accused by U.S. officials of supplying Pyongyang with rare metals and chemicals used in nuclear-weapons production. China also recently curtailed coal imports from North Korea and imposed unilateral sanctions intended to pressure Kim Jong Un into halting further nuclear tests.
有跡象表明北京正在開始上緊螺絲。9月,中國當局在丹東邊防市逮捕了至少11名企業高管,據稱向朝鮮出售禁產物品。被捕的是44歲的創始人兼紅祥集團主席馬曉紅,該公司是美國官員指責向平壤供應用於核武器生產的稀有金屬和化學物質的公司。中國最近也削減了從朝鮮進口的煤炭,並採取單方面製裁措施,迫使金正恩壓制進一步的核試驗。

In public comments after the Ma arrest, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Lu Kang said his country would be中國外交部發言人盧康在馬訪問後的公眾意見中表示,他的國家將在執行旨在消除朝鮮半島核武器的製裁方面“無情”。

"relentless" in enforcing sanctions aimed at ridding the Korean Peninsula of nuclear weapons.
"These efforts are there for all to see," Lu said.
“這些努力都是讓人們看到的,”盧說。

During last week's presidential visit, Trump administration officials urged President Xi to do still more. At a news conference on Thursday, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called on China to join in a "new strategy to end North Korea's reckless behavior."
在上週的總統訪問中,特朗普政府官員呼籲習近平總統做得更多。週四的新聞發布會上,國務卿Rex Tillerson呼籲中國加入“結束朝鮮魯莽行為的新策略”。

The same message has been delivered privately as part of a pressure campaign that dates at least to the early years of the Obama administration. In meetings, U.S. officials have warned that a failure to halt the illicit trade could speed up Kim Jong Un's nuclear timetable and increase the risk of a regional war - one that could devastate regional economies and send waves of refugees streaming across China's border - an outcome Chinese leaders are particularly anxious to avoid, according to a recently retired U.S. diplomat and veteran of numerous rounds of such talks.
至少在歐巴馬政府的早期,壓力團體私下提交同樣的信息。在會議中,美國官員警告說,未能阻止非法貿易,可能會加快金正日的核時間表,增加區域性戰爭的風險,這可能會破壞區域經濟。最近退休的美國外交官和經驗豐富的多次這樣的談判,中國領導人特別急於避免中國邊界的難民潮。

"China may be willing to close its eyes to some things," the diplomat said, "but they're not prepared to welcome North Korea as a nuclear-weapons state."
外交官說:“中國可能願意關注一些事情,但是他們不接受朝鮮為核武國家。”



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